A Definition of Sexuality

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Hysteria is undoubtedly the first mental disorder attributable to women, accurately described in the second millennium BC, and until Freud considered an exclusively female disease. Over years of history, this disease was considered from two perspectives: It was cured with herbs, sex or sexual abstinence, punished and purified with fire for its association with sorcery and finally, clinically studied as a disease and treated with innovative therapies. However, even at the end of 19th century, scientific innovation had still not reached some places, where the only known therapies were those proposed by Galen. During the 20th century several studies postulated the decline of hysteria amongst occidental patients both women and men and the escalating of this disorder in non-Western countries. Ancient Egypt The first mental disorder attributable to women, and for which we find an accurate description since the second millennium BC, is undoubtedly hysteria. The first description referring to the ancient Egyptians dates to BC Kahun Papyrus and identifies the cause of hysterical disorders in spontaneous uterus movement within the female body [ 2 , 3 ].

What is Carbon Dating

Scientific American Editor Michael Moyer explains the process of radiocarbon dating. What is Carbon Dating? Carbon is one of the chemical elements.

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Love-hungry teenagers and archaeologists agree: But while the difficulties of single life may be intractable, the challenge of determining the age of prehistoric artifacts and fossils is greatly aided by measuring certain radioactive isotopes. Until this century, relative dating was the only technique for identifying the age of a truly ancient object. By examining the object’s relation to layers of deposits in the area, and by comparing the object to others found at the site, archaeologists can estimate when the object arrived at the site.

Though still heavily used, relative dating is now augmented by several modern dating techniques. Radiocarbon dating involves determining the age of an ancient fossil or specimen by measuring its carbon content. Carbon , or radiocarbon, is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope that forms when cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere strike nitrogen molecules, which then oxidize to become carbon dioxide.

Green plants absorb the carbon dioxide, so the population of carbon molecules is continually replenished until the plant dies. Carbon is also passed onto the animals that eat those plants. After death the amount of carbon in the organic specimen decreases very regularly as the molecules decay. Samples from the past 70, years made of wood, charcoal, peat, bone, antler or one of many other carbonates may be dated using this technique.

Is Evolution Science

Carbon Dating Carbon dating to determine the age of fossil remains In this section we will explore the use of carbon dating to determine the age of fossil remains. Carbon is a key element in biologically important molecules. During the lifetime of an organism, carbon is brought into the cell from the environment in the form of either carbon dioxide or carbon-based food molecules such as glucose; then used to build biologically important molecules such as sugars, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids.

Definition of RADIOMETRIC DATING: The method of obtaining a geological age by measuring the relative abundance of radioactive parent and daughter isotopes in geological materials. See panel.

Slowly and painstakingly, geologists have assembled this record into the generalized geologic time scale shown in Figure 1. This was done by observing the relative age sequence of rock units in a given area and determining, from stratigraphic relations, which rock units are younger, which are older, and what assemblages of fossils are contained in each unit. Using fossils to correlate from area to area, geologists have been able to work out a relative worldwide order of rock formations and to divide the rock record and geologic time into the eras, periods, and epochs shown in Figure 1.

The last modification to the geologic time scale of Figure 1 was in the s, before radiometric dating was fully developed, when the Oligocene Epoch was inserted between the Eocene and the Miocene. Although early stratigraphers could determine the relative order of rock units and fossils, they could only estimate the lengths of time involved by observing the rates of present geologic processes and comparing the rocks produced by those processes with those preserved in the stratigraphic record.

With the development of modern radiometric dating methods in the late s and s, it was possible for the first time not only to measure the lengths of the eras, periods, and epochs but also to check the relative order of these geologic time units. Radiometric dating verified that the relative time scale determined by stratigraphers and paleontologists Figure 1 is absolutely correct, a result that could only have been obtained if both the relative time scale and radiometric dating methods were correct.

Nonetheless, stratigraphy and radiometric dating of Precambrian rocks have clearly demonstrated that the history of the Earth extends billions of years into the past. Radiometric dating has not been applied to just a few selected rocks from the geologic record. Literally many tens of thousands of radiometric age measurements are documented in the scientific literature. Since beginning operation in the early s, the Geochronology laboratories of the U.

Add to this number the age measurements made by from 50 to other laboratories worldwide, and it is easy to see that the number of radiometric ages produced over the past two to three decades and published in the scientific literature must easily exceed , Three basic approaches are used to determine the age of the Earth.

Radioactive dating

Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias. To keep from making claims that someone could refute later.

Radioactive dating definition, any method of determining the age of earth materials or objects of organic origin based on measurement of either short-lived radioactive elements or the amount of a long-lived radioactive element plus its decay product. See more.

Chemistry yrs Interactive, Learning Pod 3 How do we know how old a fossil is? We use carbon, as every living being has carbon. Carbon dating, also known as radiocarbon dating, is a method of estimating the age of carbon-bearing materials up to 60, years old. One of the most frequent uses of radiocarbon dating is to estimate the age of organic remains from archaeological sites. However, it is also used to determine ages of rocks, plants, trees, etc.

How carbon dating works? There are some carbon particles in the atmosphere. The highest rate of carbon production takes place at altitudes of 9 to 15 km 30, to 50, ft.

Science Dictionary: Radiation

Anyone with a smoking habit has an increased chance of lung, cervical, and other types of cancer; respiratory diseases such as emphysema , asthma, and chronic bronchitis ; and cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack , high blood pressure, stroke , and atherosclerosis narrowing and hardening of the arteries. The risk of stroke is especially high in women who take birth control pills. Smoking can damage fertility, making it harder to conceive, and it can interfere with the growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

There is some evidence that smoking may cause impotence in some men. Because smoking affects so many of the body’s systems, smokers often have vitamin deficiencies and suffer oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. estimated age). In geology, rock or superficial deposits, fossils and lithologies can be used to correlate one stratigraphic column with another.

Many believe love is a sensation that magically generates when Mr. No wonder so many people are single. A few years ago, I spoke to a group of high-schoolers about the Jewish idea of love. I’ll define it, and you raise your hands if you agree. Love is that feeling you get when you meet the right person. And I thought, Oy. This is how many people approach a relationship. Consciously or unconsciously, they believe love is a sensation based on physical and emotional attraction that magically, spontaneously generates when Mr.

And just as easily, it can spontaneously degenerate when the magic “just isn’t there” anymore. You fall in love, and you can fall out of it. The key word is passivity. Erich Fromm, in his famous treatise “The Art of Loving,” noted the sad consequence of this misconception:

Definition of Radioisotope

Nicola McDougal Nicky has taught a variety of chemistry courses at college level. Nicky has a PhD in Physical Chemistry. Ever wondered how scientists know the age of old bones in an ancient site or how old a scrap of linen is?

Carbon dating, also called radiocarbon dating, method of age determination that depends upon the decay to nitrogen of radiocarbon (carbon). Carbon is continually formed in nature by the interaction of neutrons with nitrogen in the Earth’s atmosphere; the neutrons required for this.

See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric [1] dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days?

Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago. It makes no sense at all if man appeared at the end of billions of years. We will deal with carbon dating first and then with the other dating methods. How the carbon clock works Carbon has unique properties that are essential for life on Earth. One rare form has atoms that are 14 times as heavy as hydrogen atoms: Carbon is made when cosmic rays knock neutrons out of atomic nuclei in the upper atmosphere.

These displaced neutrons, now moving fast, hit ordinary nitrogen 14N at lower altitudes, converting it into 14C.

Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon Dating

The science that uses tree rings dated to their exact year of formation to analyze temporal and spatial patterns of processes in the physical and cultural sciences. The beginning of earlywood formation and the end of the latewood formation form one annual ring, which usually extends around the entire circumference of the tree. A tree-ring chronology therefore represents departures of growth for any one year compared to average growth.

What is the difference between cultural dating and scientific dating? \nScientific dating attempts to assign a particular year to a particular item, or as close to a year as possible, for example 75 a.d. or b.c.

Dating, Mating and Relating: Additions were last made on Wednesday, May 7, Introduction The purpose of our project was to better understand dating patterns in college age students. Dating is an activity that most college age students are engaged in or are at least interested in. We chose a questionnaire with these questions: Please list the top five characteristics that attract others to you; Please list the top five characteristics that you are attracted to in others; Why Do You Date?

In our research for the project we examined many disciplines including history, sociology, psychology, biology, and chemistry. We also explored how cultural differences and non-traditional couples transgress main stream ideas about dating. This interdisciplinary research led us to a complex understanding about our topic. Dating is a practice that is influenced by the time period, social conditions and constructs, biology, cultural norms, and institutional structures that surround people.

The audience of this education project is our peers who are involved in college aged dating in the present. We hope to provide some background for them to understand why people date the way they do today. We want to educate our peers about the history of dating, and how the social and biological sciences evaluate the practice in modern times.

How Do Scientists Date Ancient Things

BACK to the timeline The dating system used in the Signposts is usually the same as that we use today in early 21st century USAmerica , in order to make the chronology clearer to readers. However, the actual calendaring system used by future peoples may be radically different, for a multitude of reasons. The seachanges in regard to religious beliefs may move our present system based on the life of Christ BC, AD to another framework entirely, for example. Our exodus from Realtime to virtual time may also bring about big changes in our calendaring methods as one virtual year might be equivalent to a hundred or thousand Realtime years.

Another date issue is the lack of precise dates given here for some developments or events.

Scientific definition radioactive dating Carbon has a nucleus contains an article about its past. V. Definitions of dating of 5, nuclei can fall apart. These, micro, by henry becquerel, where the most important are just a particular atom might not emit a radioactive decay is useful for.

Dictionaries of this kind are result of long-term research in the field of textology , paleography , history of literary texts , because excerpting can be performed only after numerous basic studies have been completed. By means of the scientific critical apparatus used , the proposed project will contribute significantly via the theoretical definition of Croatian textology as an important philologic scientific discipline , based on the creative opus of this distinguished Croatian writer from the late 19th century and first half of the 20th century.

Final goals of the project: A to find , identify , study and publish Croatian Latin , Croatian Glagolitic and Croatian Latin-script hagiographical martyrological , hagiographical and legendary texts which form the basic and largest literary genre of Croatian and European Middle Ages. A monograph probably in more volumes about these texts is prepared ; B to make a survey and prepare a monograph of Croatian visions and contrasts as another large and significant genre in Croatian and European medieval literatures ; C to complete a bibliography of biblical texts in Croatian Glagolitic missals and breviaries in order to prepare a textual corpus for future textological research and reconstruction of the Croatian Glagolitic Bible.

Croatian medieval literature , Latin texts , Glagolitic and Latin- script texts , Croatian Glagolitic breviaries , hagiography , apocrypha , visions , contrasts , Croatian Glagolitic Bible , sermons , homilies , hymns , literary history , textology , literary criticism , genology , poetics , bibliography. Found 7 sentences matching phrase “textology”. Found in 2 ms. Translation memories are created by human, but computer aligned, which might cause mistakes.

They come from many sources and are not checked.

Scientists Prove: Your Birth Month Defines Your Health and Personality